Spinosaurus: The largest carnivorous dinosaurs, spinosaurus was inhabited during the late Cretaceous period. Spinosaurus was the largest of all carnivorous dinosaurs, larger than Tyrannosaurus and Giganotosaurus. It roamed the swamps of North Africa, during the Cretaceous period, between 112 million and 1 million years ago.

largest carnivorous dinosaurs

Two species of Spinosaurus are named after the regions where they were discovered: Spinosaurus aegyptiacus (Egyptian spinal lizard) and Spinosaurus myrocanus (Moroccan spinal lizard). Spinosaurus means “vertebrate lizard,” an appropriate descriptor, referring to the dinosaur as having very long hairs on its back.

The distinctive spines, which protruded from the animal’s posterior vertebrae, were 2.1 m (7 ft) long and were likely attached to each other by the skin. Recent fossil evidence suggests that Spinosaurus was the first dinosaur to be able to swim, and it likely spent most of its life in water, according to a study published in September 2014 in the journal Science.

what was the largest carnivorous dinosaur

The Spinosaurus had short hip limbs (like early whales and other animals that spent most of their time in water), dense and compact bones (penguins show a similar bony profile in cross section), wide claws and legs and flat (probably used for rowing), and a long, thin snout with tapered teeth (perfect for fishing), said Nizar Ibrahim, a paleontologist at the University of Chicago and lead author of the study.

There has been much scientific debate about the evolution and purpose of the Spinosaurus tentacles. Due to its size, this dinosaur didn’t have many predators, but the tentacles could be used to scare off enemies, as the dinosaur’s tentacles had doubled in size. The dinosaur’s upper spine was quite flexible and had both flex and socket vertebral joints, which meant it could probably form its own arch at one point. It can extend tentacles when threatening or attracting a friend.

world’s largest carnivorous dinosaur

In a 1997 study published in the Journal of Paleontology, paleontologist Jack Bowman Bailey suggested that similar spinosaurs and uranosaurs ultimately did not have tails and instead had large bison-like backs. (Auranosaurus was another spiny dinosaur that lived in the same area as Spinosaurus a few million years ago.) It is believed that they lived in a hot and dry climate (it is now known that their climate was actually a swampy swamp).

Other paleontologists have speculated that spinosaurs used their tentacles to regulate their body heat by absorbing heat or storing fat. In any case, Ibrahim and his colleagues found that the spines are made up of dense bones with few blood vessels and are likely wrapped tightly around the skin, which does not support the idea of thermoregulation. The tent was probably used as a performance structure, Ibrahim told Live Science. It was visible from afar and when the animal was swimming.


In this way, the animal could tell its age, size and … gender to other animals, especially other Spinosaurus. Additionally, some paleontologists, including Ibrahim, have hypothesized that the candles were brightly colored (much like the feathers of some modern-day reptiles), making them even better display structures. But, Ibrahim noted, the candle probably had more than one function. Scott Hartman’s artwork reveals the bone structure of Spinosaurus. Scott Hartman’s artwork reveals the bone structure of Spinosaurus.

larger than giganotosaurus

Spinosaurus was larger than T. rex and Giganotosaurus, the largest previously known carnivorous dinosaur. But it’s unclear how big the Spinosaurus was due to incomplete fossils. In a 2005 study in the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, researchers estimated that Spinosaurus was 52 to 59 feet (16 to 18 m) long and weighed 7.7 to 9.9 tons (7 to 9 metric tons) according to the extrapolation of the skull measurements). Was.

However, other scientists disagreed with the study’s methods, stating instead that the giant was 41 to 47 feet (12.6 to 14.3 m) long and 13.2 to 23 tons (12 to 20.9 metric tons), according to a 2007 report therein. magazine According to a study. The partial skeleton of Spinosaurus that Ibrahim analyzed by his colleagues showed that the specimen was 50 feet (15.2 m) long and was still growing.

The fossils also show that the long neck and trunk of the Spinosaurus pushed the dinosaur’s center of mass forward. This allowed the animal to move freely in the water, but made movement on land nearly impossible until the dinosaurs used all four legs. Spinosaurus had a long, narrow snout at the end of its skull and a small ridge above its eyes.

It had six or seven needle-shaped teeth on each side of the front of the upper jaw and 12 teeth behind them. There were also some large, elongated teeth that were fused together at the end of the muzzle. While its jaws were powerful, none of the teeth were serrated, so it was unlikely that it could have used them to rip through tough prey. This reinforces the theory that it survived mainly on fish and carcasses.

what did spinosaurus eat

Spinosaurus is believed to have survived primarily on fish, including giant coelacanths, sawfish, large lungfish, and sharks, which Abraham claimed lived in the dinosaurs’ river system. Spinosaurus skulls have ‘eat fish’ written on them, so they are the type of animal that Spinosaurus would have hunted, he said. In addition to the physical evidence, the chemical analysis also suggests that Spinosaurus preferred to feed on fish, shows a 2010 study in the journal Geology.

In 2004, researchers found a tooth belonging to Irritator challengeri, a spinosaurus or dinosaur from the spinosaur taxonomic family, Spinosauridae, embedded in the remains of a Cretaceous pterosaur (flying reptile). A detailed finding in the journal Nature suggests that fish-loving spinosaurs also fed (or foraged) on non-animals. Spinosaurus lived in Egypt and Morocco. The Sahara is speculated to be rich in Spinosaurus fossils, but the harsh environment makes them difficult to find.

spinosaurus fossils

A new carnivorous dinosaur discovered in Argentina, a new genus and a new medium-sized abelisaurid dinosaur called Tralkasaurus cuyi was discovered. Dr. Mauricio Cerroni of the Argentine Museum of Natural Sciences and CONICET and his colleagues discovered a new genus and species of medium-sized abelisaurid dinosaur, called Tralkasaurus cuyi. An artistic impression of Tralkasaurus. Tralkasaurus cuyi lived about 90 million years ago in what is now Patagonia, Argentina. It belongs to Abelisauridae, a group of ceratosaurus theropod dinosaurs that flourished during the Cretaceous period in the supercontinent Gondwana.

violante farm’s fossil

A carnivorous dinosaur discovered.. The incomplete fossilized skeleton of Tralkasaurus cuyi, which includes a jaw and a vertebra, was discovered at the Violante farm’s fossil site in the province of Río Negro, in northern Patagonia. The materials found are diagnostic to describe this new species. The maxilla, which is part of the snout, was found in the skull and still retains some teeth, said Dr. Cerroni, lead author of an article.

Published in the Journal of South American Earth Sciences. As for the rest of the skeleton, cervical ribs have been found. Which protrude from the neck and are very long. So it is believed that these are tendons that have fossilized; In addition, part of the spine of the hip and tail was found. Tralkasaurus cuyi was approximately 4 m (13 feet) long, smaller than previously known abelisaurid dinosaur species. The size of Tralkasaurus cuyi contrasts with that of typical abelisaurids such as Abelisaurus and Carnotaurus (between 7 and 11 m, or 23-36 feet long).

tyrannosaurus or carnotaurus

It would occupy a different ecological niche, paleontologists said. Although its size is very small compared to Tyrannosaurus or Carnotaurus, the newly discovered dinosaur shares with them the characteristics of being a bipedal animal and with a short and muscular neck, with four claws on each of its hind legs.

While its the arms were also very short in relation to his body and the bones of his limbs were light and hollow, said Dr. Cerroni. The snout of this new species has a lot of ornamentation, that is, an outer surface marked by roughness. A characteristic of the snout of these carnivores. Which makes us assume that instead of having horns like Carnotaurus.

turtles and lizards

It could have had corneal structures small or underdeveloped, said a team member, Dr. Federico Agnolin, a researcher at the Argentine Museum of Natural Sciences, CONICET, and the University of Maimonides. Tralkasaurus cuyi probably attacked small animals that would probably include small herbivorous dinosaurs called iguanadontiens, turtles and lizards.

The largest study on the growth of the dinosaur population reveals how Mysore lived and died and decades of research on the fossils of the state of Montana. The ‘good mother lizard’ Myasaura pibelsorum, is the most detailed life story of any dinosaur and whose result is a model that can be compared to all other dinosaurs. What accompanies a new research published today in the Journal of Paleobiology.

paleobiology magazine

Researchers at Oklahoma State University, Montana State University and Indiana Purdue University used a giant fossil collected from bones in western Montana for their study. According to a recently published research, decades of research on the state fossil of the “good mother lizard” Myasaura pibalsaurum has learned the most detailed history of the life of any dinosaur and has created a model that compares with others.


It can be done with dinosaurs at paleobiology magazine. Researchers at Oklahoma State University. Montana State University and Indiana Purdue University used a giant fossil collected from bones in western Montana for their study. It is one of the most important paleontology pieces associated with MSU in the last 20 years, said Jack Horner, curator of MS Horn at the Rockies Museum.

This is a dramatic step beyond the study of fossil organisms that understand their life cycle as individuals. We are moving away from the novelty of a single example to the way we see animal populations today. Look at the dinosaur population.

growth of the dinosaur

The study was led by Holly Woodward, who conducted a research at MSU as a doctoral thesis in paleontology. Woodward is now an anatomy professor at the Center for Health Sciences at Oklahoma State University. Paleobiology studies examined the microstructure or histology of the fossil bone of 50 tibiae of Mysoreura (calf bones).

Bone histology reveals aspects of development that cannot be achieved simply by observing bone size. Including growth rate, metabolism, age of death, sexual maturity, skeletal maturity and access to the size of a species. It contains information. Woodology is the key to understanding the dynamics of the development of extinct animals, “said Woodward.” You can learn a lot from a bone just by looking at its shape.

whole evolutionary history

But the whole evolutionary history of the animal has been recorded within the bone. A sample of 50 may not seem like much, but for dinosaur paleontologists who often deal with the fossil fossil record, the Mayasaura fossil is a treasure. Woodward stated that no other histological study of individual dinosaur species reached the size of our sample.

Holly Woodward points to the Mysore fossil. Decades of research on the fossils of the state of Montana, the ‘good mother lizard’ Myasaura pibelsorum, have resulted in the most detailed life story of any dinosaur’s life. Created a model that can be compared to all other dinosaurs. According to new research published today. The journal Paleontology was studied by Woodward.

Who conducted a research at MSU as a doctoral thesis in paleontology. The researchers discovered a great deal of new information about the evolution of mysaura. It had a growth rate at the level of the birds throughout its life and was very close to the bone tissue, such as large modern warm and warm mammals. The main events of life are recorded in bone growth and mortality of animals of different age groups.

museum of dinosaurs

When studying clues in bone histology and observing patterns in death assemblies. We performed several tests that support the same moment of sexual and skeletal maturation. Elizabeth Freedman Fowler, Paleontology at the museum of dinosaurs of the Great Plains The curator said Professor Malta and the MSU assistant, who did mathematical analysis for the study.

Myasaura reached an average adult mass of 2.3 tons in eight years. Life was particularly difficult for young and old. The average mortality rate was 89.9 percent for those under one year and 44.4 percent for those over 8 years. If myasaura individuals can survive until their second year, they will enjoy a six-year window of extreme physical and reproductive fitness, when the average mortality rate was only 12.7 percent.

Woodward said: The discovery inside the bones, and previous studies have shown that we now know more about the history of Mysaura’s life and the size of the sample than any other dinosaur. Our study transforms the myasora into a model organism. Life was particularly difficult for young and old. The average mortality rate was 89.9 percent for those under one year and 44.4 percent for those over 8 years.

history of mysaura’s life

If myasaura individuals can survive until their second year. They will enjoy a six-year window of extreme physical and reproductive fitness, when the average mortality rate was only 12.7 percent. Woodward said: The discovery inside the bones, and previous studies have shown that we now know more about the history of Mysaura’s life and the size of the sample than any other dinosaur.

Our study transforms the myasora into a model organism, with which other dinosaur populations will be compared with the study of biology. The tibia 50 also highlighted several size variations within dinosaur species. Previous studies of dinosaurs histologically examined a small subset of dinosaur bones and aged the entire specimen based on the length of some histologically aged bones.

Research published in the Paleobiology journal shows more about the life story of Mysaura pibelsaurum than any other known dinosaur. Sincerely, Holly Woodward Our results suggest that you cannot measure the length of a dinosaur’s bone and assume that it represents an animal of a certain age, Woodward said. Within our sample, there is great variability in the length of the tibia in each age group.

histological dinosaurs

It would be like trying to specify an age based on your height because you know the height and age of another person. Age in histological dinosaurs The only way to determine. Horner is a research sub-writer and curator of the Rocky Museum at MSU, where Mayasaura fossils are republished, discovered and named in 1979. Mayasaura announced the first discovery of the world’s largest embryo and fossil embryo egg.

Based on the immature growth of fossils of baby dinosaurs found in the nest, Horner speculated that they were unable to hate and that they had to take care of the parents, that’s why they called the dinosaur Myasora, in Latin, a good mother. The study revealed aspects of the biology of Mayasaura, with its roots in the social colonies and Mayasaura used to walk on two legs when he was young and four when he was growing up.

paleontology study

His favorite foods included rotten wood; And its climate was warm and semi-arid with the possibility of a long dry season. The tibia included in the paleontology study comes from a single bone that covers at least two square kilometers in western Montana. After more than 30 years of excavation and thousands of fossils, there are no signs that the bone fragment moves.

Woodward plans to lead the annual Mayasaura summer excavations to gather more data. Our study closes the Myasaura Life History Project, which seeks to learn as much as possible about Myasaura and its surroundings, collecting bones and examining bone fossils 76 million years ago. Continue to do so, adding strength to the sample, he said.

We plan to examine other skeletal elements to produce a histological ‘map’ of Mysore, to see if different bones in their bodies have grown at different rates, giving us an idea of their biology and behavior. Give an idea This allows us to study more aspects of it. We also want to improve. The environment, including the life story of other animals in the ecosystem in which the Mysoura lived. 

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