Bird-like dinosaurs: Paleontologists have found an exceptionally well-preserved and delayed skull of a previously unknown bird-like dinosaur species in a piece of amber from the Cretaceous period of northern Myanmar. The 99 million-year-old amber hummingbird-sized bird-like dinosaurs preserves skulls that paleontologists have found exceptionally well preserved. The newly identified species called Oculudentavis khaungraae may represent the smallest known Mesozoic dinosaur in the fossil record.
Its size is comparable to that of the smallest bird bee sparrow (Melisuga halene). Amber preservation of curtebrates is rare, and it gives us a window into the world of dinosaurs at the lower end of the body-size spectrum, said Dr. Lars Schmitz, Claremont McKenna. A researcher at the Department of Science, WM. Keek of Scripps. And Pigitter College. Its unique physical characteristics point to one of the smallest and oldest birds.
A piece of amber just 31 x 20 x 8.5mm, including the skull of the Okudentevis Khangera, came from the Angbamo site near Tanhai in the Hukwan Valley in Kachin Province, Myanmar. Dr. Schmitz and colleagues studied the characteristic features of the specimen with high-resolution synchrotron scans to determine how the skull differed from other bird-like dinosaurs specimens. They found that the shape and size of the eye bones suggested a complete lifestyle.
But they also revealed striking similarities to the eyes of modern lizards. The skull also shows a unique fusion pattern between various bone elements, as well as the appearance of the teeth. Oculudentevis khangraya. The small sample size and unusual shape suggest a never-before-seen combination.
The scientists said, the discovery represents a previously missing specimen from the fossil record and provides new implications for understanding bird evolution and demonstrating extreme miniaturization of avian body size in the evolutionary process (bird-like dinosaurs). Preserving samples also highlights the ability of amber deposits to reveal a minimal range of vertebral body size.
“No other group of live birds has species with an equally small skull in adults,” Drs. Schmitz said. This discovery tells us that in the age of dinosaurs, we only see them as small vertebrates. Hummingbird-like dinosaurs found preserved in amber.
The researchers described a small, bird-like skull discovered in amber, about 99 million years old. Scientists have discovered a new species of bird-shaped or bird-like dinosaurs from skulls trapped in amber. The new species, he says, may represent the smallest Mesozoic dinosaur ever built.
Researchers have described a small, bird-like skull discovered in amber, about 99 million years old, from northern Burma. According to the findings published in the journal Nature, the length of the specimen’s skull is only 7.1 mm, indicating that the dinosaur was similar in size to bee sparrows.
The smallest living bird, it’s unique physical characteristics point to one of the smallest and oldest birds. Lars Schmitz, associate professor of biology at the WMMK Science Department in the United States, said: Amber preservation of vertebrates is rare, and it gives us a window into the world of dinosaurs at the lower end of the spectrum of the size of the Body.
Its unique physical characteristics point to one of the smallest and oldest birds. Researchers have named the animal Oculudantis khungrai. Oculudentavis means “teeth of the eye”, reflecting remarkable characteristics that give an idea of the animal’s lifestyle.
Its skull is dominated by a large lizard-like eye socket. The eye socket has a narrow opening and provides only a small amount of light. The researchers say this suggests it was suitable for being active in daylight conditions. The lower and upper jaws have a greater number of sharp teeth, and the authors estimate that each jaw will have 29-30 teeth in total. Despite its small size, it suggests that the dinosaur was a predator and probably fed on small arthropods or invertebrates.
Professor Schmitz said: “No other group of living birds has species with an equally small skull in adults. This discovery tells us that in the age of dinosaurs, we only see them as small vertebrates. The smallest bird-like dinosaurs or bird-shaped dinosaur trapped in amber 99 million years old in Myanmar. Amber is 99 million years old, with the skull of the small Oculudentavis bird almost entirely preserved inside.
The smallest bird known to scientists, which is the smallest bird, smaller than any bird, appears to be surrounded by 99-million-year-old amber and gripped with many claw teeth, with many strange symptoms. Researchers reported Wednesday that the skull is about half an inch (14.25 mm) long, from a bird called Oculudentevis khungrae that now lived in northern Myanmar during the Cretaceous period.
Nothing of the rest of the body was preserved, but the researchers estimated that Oculudentevis weighed about 28 grams and was 5 centimeters long, including an imaginary bone tail. I was completely impressed, paleontologist Jingmai O’Connor of the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleontropology described his reaction to seeing the fossil in Beijing. This is quite possibly the most beautifully preserved Mesozoic (bird-like dinosaurs) bird skull I have ever seen and it is very strange. The Mesozoic era was the age of dinosaurs. “I was amazed,” added Louis Chiape, a paleontologist and co-author of the study at the Los Angeles county museum of Natural History. O’Connor said Oculudentavis appears to be smaller than that of a bee sparrow, which until now is considered the smallest bird in the world.
small winged dinosaurs
Oculudentavis shares some similarities, different in size, with hummingbirds, which, like all modern birds, eat tooth loss and nectar. Many Mesozoic birds had teeth, but Oculudentavis had the majority: about 100, a conical shape and sharp ridges at the edges. Oculudentavis possibly hunts pests. Unlike omingudentis, hummingbirds have long beaks. Birds evolved from small winged dinosaurs and bird-like dinosaurs about 150 million years ago.
Oculudentavis probably shows an almost incomprehensible size difference between members of the dinosaur lineage, unlike the contemporary South American long-necked, column-legged Argentine dinosaur at distances of 90 tons and 35 meters. O’Connor, who led the research published in the journal Nature, said: The diversity of sizes hints at the amazing biology of dinosaurs, which is capable of sustaining such diversity.
insects, lizards, and frogs
O’Connor said his eyes resemble those of an owl, in which the bones of the eye form a cone. Unlike birds of prey with forward-facing eyes and binocular vision, the eyes in the occludentavis look sideways and drop from the head, allowing good depth perception. The small size of the perforation of the eye bones indicates that the occidentalis was active during the day.
Amber, the bark of a fossil tree, has preserved many small creatures, including insects, lizards, and frogs.
Amber is amazing as a preservative medium, said O’Connor. If the animal doesn’t decompose long before it becomes trapped in the resin, preservation is unprecedented. All soft tissue is preserved in three dimensions, like a window into an ancient world. The findings are published in the Journal Nature. Intact dinosaur embryo in million-year-old eggs Paleontologists have found an 80-million-year-old dinosaur egg, which contains an embryo that is exceptionally well preserved.
According to explorers in the scientific journal Current Biology, this type of discovery is extremely rare. This will be the first time that a monolithic dinosaur embryo can be examined. The egg was found in the Argentine part of Patagonia. Previously, no dinosaur fossils had been found in the site-specific environment. However, during this excavation many eggs were removed from the ground.
A Titanosaurus laid this egg millions of years ago. Titanosaurus was a genus of herbivorous animals, the largest land animals ever present. Titanosaurus may have the most intact skull ever found inside an egg. The skull measures a few centimeters and reveals that Titanosaurus had a horn on its snout at a young age. They may have been able to use it to hit an egg that is open from the inside.
The dinosaur would later lose this horn. This is the first time a horn of this type has been indicated. Paleontologists were able to examine the fetus by dissolving the eggshell around it with an acid. The embryos could then be ‘dissected’ with radiation technology. Other eggs found in the same location are also examined using these techniques.
Life can happen in the inflationary universe, in an article published in the Journal of Scientific Reports. In an article published in the Journal of Scientific Reports and Professor Tomonori Totani of the University of Tokyo observed how the basic components of life can form spontaneously in a process known as abiogenesis.
earth science and astronomy
We can be the only intelligent life in the universe of observation. NASA image. Despite the recent rapid development of biology, chemistry. The origins of life through earth science and astronomy, Abooginness, remain a great mystery in science. A key feature of life is the information stored in DNA and RNA and how that information was revealed by abiotic processes is an important issue.
We can be the only intelligent life in the observable universe. Professor Totani said: As we know that there is only life on Earth, studies on the origin of life are limited to the specific conditions we find here. Therefore, most research in this area analyzes the most basic components for all known living things: RNA. It is a much simpler and more essential molecule than the best known DNA that defines how we bind.
But RNA is even more complex than orders of magnitude, because one type of chemist is floating in space or clinging to the face of a lifeless planet. RNA is a polymer, which means that it is formed by chemical chains, in this case known as nucleotides. Given sufficient time, nucleotides can spontaneously bind to RNA due to chemical conditions.
The researchers are unaware of how a RNA polymerase has for a long time a self-replicating activity (RNA polymerase ribozyme) that arose from prebiotic conditions and then began to develop. RNA molecules of less than 25 nucleotides do not show a specific function. But there is a reasonable expectation of finding a replicative ribozyme longer than 40-60 nucleotides.
RNA polymerase ribozyme has a length of 100 nucleotides so far in laboratory experiments. Current estimates suggest that the magic of 40 to 100 nucleotides in space should not have been possible. Which we consider an observable universe, said Professor Totani. However, the universe is more observable than it is in contemporary cosmology.
It is accepted that the universe is experiencing a period of rapid inflation that produces a vast field of expansion beyond the horizon and that we can observe directly. Factoring this excess into a model of pathogenesis increases the likelihood of life occurring. Actually, there are about 1022 stars in the observable universe. Statistically, such an amount of matter should only be able to produce approximately 20 nucleotide RNA. But thanks to rapid inflation.
long history of cosmology
The Universe can contain more than 10100 stars and if this is the case, more complex and life-sustaining RNA frameworks are more than just potential, they are virtually inevitable. Like many in this field of research, I am inspired by curiosity and big questions, said Professor Totani. Combining my recent research on RNA chemistry with my long history of cosmology, I realize that the universe has moved from an inorganic state to an organic form.
This is an exciting thought and I hope that research can be based on this to discover the origins of life. The emergence of life in a composite universe. The abiotic emergence of computational information stored as RNA is a major unsolved problem related to the origin of life. Polymers of more than 40 to 100 nucleotides are required to expect self-replicating activity.
But the formation of this long polymer with the correct nucleotide sequence by random reactions seems statistically impossible. However, our universe, created by a single probability event, probably contains more than 10,100 Sun-like stars. If life can emerge at least once in such a large quantity, this is not contrary to our observations of life in Earth, despite the fact that the expected number of aristocratic events is carelessly small within an observable universe that includes 1022 stars.
organic biological polymer
Here, a quantitative relationship emerges between the minimum length of RNA required to be an organic biological polymer and the size of the universe to expect the formation of such a long and active RNA by the random addition of monomers. It has then been shown that an active RNA can originate somewhere in an alien universe, providing a solution to the problem of abiotic polymers. On the other hand, for a probability of abiotism close to unity on a terrestrial planet.
development of biology, chemistry
The sheet should be less than 20 nucleotides, but self-replication activity is not expected for RNAs this low. Therefore, if supernatural organisms from an original organism living on Earth are discovered in the future. It would be an unknown mechanism that would serve to polymerize nucleotides much faster than random statistical procedures. Despite the recent rapid development of biology, chemistry.
Earth science and astronomy, the origin of life (abiogenesis) remains a great mystery in science 1-5. A key feature of life is the information stored in DNA / RNA, and how abiotic processes reveal that information is an important issue. Hypothesis 6-8 of the RNA world RNA marks an early era in which RNA played both a genetic and a catalytic role before reaching the world of DNA proteins.
This is widely accepted due to strong supporting evidence, including the catalytic activities of RNA. Which is particularly important for its central role in ribosomes. However, a more fundamental and unsolved problem is that the RNA polymer is long enough for self-replicating RNA polymerase activity and RNA replicating ribozyme that arose from prebiotic conditions and then initiated Darwin’s development.
The greatest amount is the minimum length of RNA required to show self-replication ability. RNA molecules of less than 25 nucleotides (NT) do not show specific function, but 40-60 nt is a reasonable expectation of long-acting replicative ribozyme longer than 8.9. The ribozyme of RNA polymerase produced by in vitro experiments is now more than 100 nt10-12 in length. Also, the formation of a single long strand may not be suicidal to initiate an advocacy event.
Instead, a pair of identical strands may be required if one serves as a replicative ribozyme and the other as a template. The polymerization of RNA in water is a process of thermodynamic decomposition and therefore requires the activation of reactive monomers. Non-enzymatic reactions of the addition of active monomers.
For example imidazole activated ribonucleotides to an RNA oligomer have been experimentally studied 1,4,13. Reactions at inorganic catalytic sites (such as the surface of minerals such as montmorolite clay) can be particularly efficient14,15. Some experiments led to a production of 40 μm of RNA16,17. Which may be long enough for some biological activities.
However, these results have not been reproducible, and in recent experiments only small oligomers up to 10 µm were produced. Which are rapidly decreasing in abundance with oligomer lengths 13,18-20. This trend is also consistent with the theoretical expectation of the random addition of monomers (see below).
An experimental dicolase is that aggregates can easily be mistaken for polymers, depending on detection methods 13,21. It has been hypothesized theoretically that oligomer terminal obligation hierarchies can produce more than 22 but there is no experimental or quantitative demonstration of this, starting with realistic prebiotic conditions. A report of experimental long-term polymer production ( 120 nt) is found in 1Depbox 23 Astronomy, School of Science, University of Tokyo.
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